### P.hD Courses

## These courses are open for MS(R):

Introduction to discrete time stochastic processes, properties of correlation matrix and spectra, modelling of stochastic processes. AR, MA and ARMA modelling. Yule – Walker equations, Levinsons – Durbin and Schur algorithm, analysis and synthesis of lattice, joint process estimation, introduction to adaptive filters, examples from adaptive noise cancellation, equalization, echo cancellation and system identification. Methods of steepest descent , latest mean squares (LMS) algorithm, gradient adaptive lattice, block LMS algorithm, Recursive least squares formulation, filtering via orthogonal projection, Recursive least squares (RLS) based transversal and lattice filters, least squares lattice (LSL)algorithm, QR composition based adaptive filters, QRD-RLS, QRD-LSL, introduction to non linear adaptive filtering and modelling, blind deconvolution and constant modulus. |

Digital modulation, Introduction to some wireless standards. Multiple Access principles (TDMA, CDMA, FDMA, OFDMA). Advanced modulation techniques. Spread spectrum: frequency hoping, direct sequence CDMA, RAKE Receiver, IS-95 CDMA uplink and downlink example, PN code coarse and fine time tracking, WCDMA introduction. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). 30 Single carrier and multiple carrier examples, Multipath mitigation techniques, frequency domain equalization. Radio propagation Characterization AWGN channel, Rayleigh multipath fading, Rician multipath fading, delay spread concept (fiat Vs frequency selective fading) indoor propagation measurements, outdoor propagation measurements. Performance improvement techniques Antenna receiver diversity techniques, switching, equal gain, maximal ratio, optimal combining, symbol timing recovery methods, equalization techniques. Linear decision feedback, MLSE, Equalization coefficient, adaptation schemes: LMS, RLS, LSL etc. Space time equalization: ML perspective, Generalized RAKE (G- RAKE), Adaptive antenna arrays: MMSE and MSINR based cost functions, Eigen – spectra investigation. Antenna transmitter diversity techniques: space – time block codes. Closed loop, MIMO Digital Signal processing Automatic frequency control, automatic gain control, channel quality estimation techniques, power control loops. Uplink and down link, multipath mitigation, multiuser detection in CDMA channels, Zero – forcing, MMSE and decision feedback techniques. Joint detection and single user detection in CDMA channels, Blind Channel and data estimation. MIMO- OFDM channel estimation. Joint channel and frequency offset estimation in OFDM. |

Baseband, narrowband and wideband signals and noise representation and characteristics of communication channels, linear and optimal filtering, baseband binary signal transmission intersymbol interference bit time recovery and errors, partial response signalling, line codes. M-ary signals orthogonal representations. Gram – Schmidt procedure, signal space concepts, bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, carrier synchronization. Spread spectrum techniques – codes, transmitters, receivers, performance. |

Basic principles; Direct current machines; Reference frame theory; Symmetrical induction machines; Synchronous machines; Brushless DC machines; Operational impedances and time constants; Linearised motor dynamics; Reduced order machine dynamics; Two-phase induction machines. Experimental work includes simulation on PSCAD/EMTDC 4.2. |

Introduction to power electronic devices, and driving circuits; DC-DC converters; AC-DC converters; DC-AC converters; AC-AC converters; multi-level inverters; matrix converters. Simulation of converters and applications. |

Modern power system operation and control, static and dynamic modeling, Load flow studies, transient stability and small signal stability of large power systems, voltage stability: P-V and Q-V curves, static analysis, sensitivity and continuation power flow method, Wide area real-time monitoring systems 31 |

History of electric power systems restructuring, Electricity market structures, Market clearing mechanism, Transmission open access, Transmission pricing and loss allocation, Transmission congestion management, Ancillary services and system security in deregulation, Market power and generator bidding, Reforms in Indian power sector. |

Introduction to optimization techniques, economic load dispatch of thermal and hydro-thermal plants, loss formula, real and reactive power optimization, optimal power flow, unit commitment, power system security constrained optimization, load-frequency control, energy control centers and power system state estimation, Wide area monitoring. |

Sensors: capacitive, acoustic, thermal, radiation, chemical and gas. Signal acquisition, sampling, conditioning, A/D, D/A converters, Signal Processing – time domain, frequency domain. Principles of X-rays and ionizing radiation – generation, absorption, scattering, contrast sensitivity, intensity. X and gamma-ray interaction with materials. X-ray and gamma-ray sources. Recordnig of radiation, radiographic film, intensifying screens, fluorescent screens, raduation detectors. Radiographic techniques – including film radiography, gamma radiography, radiographic sensitivity, flaw sensitivity, interpretation, digital image processing, computerized tomography. Infrared radiation – radiometry, emissivity, Planck’s law, temperature measeurement. Heat transfer. Active and passive thermography. Acoustic radiation principles – wave propagation, acoustic impedance, bulk and surface waves, near and far field. Ultrasonic modeling – Ultrasonic transducers – piezo-electric, magneto-restrictive. Ultrasonic measeurement systems – pulse echo, through transmission, time of flight diffraction, guided wave technology. |

Electromagnetic waves: scalar and vector waves, propagation in stratified media, Light-Matter interaction: Photons and atoms, Theory of interference and interferometers, Diffraction theory, Lasers; theory of Laser oscillation, Q- switching, Mode-locking and Ultra short pulse generation Principles and devices inElectro-Optics, Acousto-Optics, Guided Wave-Optics, Holography, Speckle, Fiber and Fourier Optics, Nonlinear-Optics: physical origin of optical nonlinearities. Wave propagation in nonlinear crystals, Second Harmonic Generation, sum and difference frequencies, Parametric processes, Self-focusing, Phase Conjugation and Photore fractive effect, Ultra-fast Optics. |

Introduction to optical communication, Optical Fiber Waveguides, Different Fiber Types, Fiber Limitations, Dispersion, Attenuation and Nonlinearities in fibers. Optical Transmitters and Receivers, Optical Transceivers, Noise Sources in Optical communication, Light Systems, CWDM (Coarse wavelength Division Multiplexing), ITU wave Grids, DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing), Optical Wave Multiplexers, De-Multiplexers, Fixed OADM (Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer), ROADM (Re-configurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer), Dispersion Compensation, Optical Amplifiers, EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifies), Raman Amplifiers, Optical DWDM Network Design Considerations, Optical Fiber Link Design Exercises. |

Discrete time signals and systems, Convolution and frequency response. Discrete time Fourier and Z – transforms. Properties, analysis of discrete time systems. The DFT, definition and properties, circular convolution calculation, FFT transform. Relationship between continuous and discrete time systems: sampling time and frequency normalization, discrete time processing of continuous time signals. Difference equation for digital filters definition and properties. FIR filters, IIR filters, Digital filter design techniques: impulse invariance, Bilinear transformation, finite difference, window design methods, introduction to multirate DSP, decimation and interpolation, polyphase decomposition , uniform DDFT filter banks, quadrature mirror filters and perfect reconstruction. Adaptive signal processing: time adaptive systems, LMS algorithm. Recursive least squares (RLS) algorithms, least square lattice (LSL) algorithm. |

Review of power electronic converters; the regulation and tracking problem; feedback control principles; converter models for feedback; averaging methods and models; voltage and current mode for converters; comparator based control for rectifiers; proportional and PI control applications; smallsignal analysis and linearization; control design based on linearization; hysteresis control; general boundary control; vector control of inverters; instantaneous p-q control of inverters; sensors and actuators. |

Importance and applicability of renewable energy sources; technology and economics of wind power; technology and economics of small hydro; technology and economics of biogas and biopower; generation of fuels from energy crops; technology and economics of solar thermal systems; technology and economics of photovoltaic systems; technology and economics of wave and tidal energy systems; energy analysis techniques; cost analysis techniques; environmental impact and its analysis. |

Insulation system used in high voltage power equipment: gaseous, vacuum, liquid, solid and composite insulation, performance of insulation under electric stress, high voltage dielectric tests; Generation and measurement of high ac, dc and impulse voltages in test/research laboratories, generation and measurement of impulse current, digital techniques in HV measurements, calibration of HV measuring instruments and traceability of HV measurements, Resent developments in non-destructive insulation diagnostics and condition monitoring of high voltage equipments. P-Spice Simulation of HV apparatus. |

Human visual system and image perception; monochrome and color vision models; image acquisition and display systems; video input/output devices; standard video formats; display and storage; 2-D signals and systems; 2D transforms; image enhancement; image restoration; Wiener filtering; image/video compression; motion compensation, motion estimation, water marking; image analysis, multi-resolution analysis, wavelet packets; image classification; morphological image processing; object recognition; color image processing. Experiments are based on MATLAB implementation of algorithms covered in the course. |

Transient phenomena on transmission lines, method of its calculation, use of TNA, EMTP and PSPICE, lightning discharges, origin and characteristics of lightning and switching overvoltages, behavior of 33 apparatus and line insulation under overvoltage, VFTO in GIS, protection of apparatus against overvoltages, surge arresters and insulatin co-ordination. |

MOS Models for Analog Design, Small signal MOS models; Noise- analysis and feedback; Amplifier design, Single-ended and differential OTAs, design of current sources; Feedback amplifiers, multistage amplifiers, biasing and references, Equalization, Design of equalizers circuits; Design of sample and hold and comparator circuits; High-speed electrical ling design, interconnect modeling and optimization; Lab sessions and poject assignments based on simulation of analog circuits using Cadence Design Tool. |

Transient fields due to finite conductivity, method of images. Images in two-layer soil, numerical methods, finite difference, finite element and charge simulation methods to solve problems of electrostatics. Hera’s Existence Theorem-Continuity equation. Maxwell’s Equations, Poisson’s and Laplace Equations in dielectric design. |

High-speed link design, interconnect modeling and optimization; Low power electronic circuits; Carbon based nanoelectronics; Advances in device modeling and behavior (organic transistors, single electron transistors, RF transistors); Computer-aided-design of digital systems; Design methodologies, verification and testing; Introduction to semiconductor fabrication processes; Lab sessions and project assignments based on simulation of circuits using Cadence Design Tool, Ansys HFSS and Synopsys Tools. |

Pre-requisites :NIL Basic Concepts of dynamical Systems and Stability: Detailed modeling of synchronous machine, turbine –governor, and excitation system. Small signal stability: damping and synchronizing torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis; mitigation using power system stabilizers and supplementary modulation control of FACTS devices. Transient stability: Analysis using digital simulation and energy function method, Voltage stability: P-V and Q-V curves , static analysis, sensitivity and continuation method. |